Category Archives: Leadership

Why the idea of a scrum team is so powerful..

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The idea of a team has evolved over the last decade. What started off with a group of people working together to achieve a vague goal under the control of a manager/leader, has in some cases matured where teams are gradually getting more engaged and are aware of the business objectives and are being trusted to get to the finish line.

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The idea of a scrum team presented a new twist to the definition of a team, obviously with its share of discomforts. The thought of a team without a manager, attributes of self organization and self management and emphasis to build trust sounded great but had many heads shaking.

While some organizations have introduced structural changes to embrace 3 scrum roles (Scrum Master, Product Owner, Development team), most organizations are trying to fit the new roles in the context of their current organizational structure or are making a effort to somehow align existing roles to the new ones.

The thought that some existing roles may become redundant can be discomforting and lead to resistance. Some common questions/opinions are highlighted:

  • What about the “other” roles like business analysts, architects, project managers etc..?
  • These people have been with the organization for ever. We can’t let them go.
  • Our product owners are customer facing and have other responsibilities. They cannot be available to the team.
  • A Scrum Master? Who is going to manage the team?
  • Our teams are not mature enough to self organize.

The above questions are clearly indicative of the lack of understanding of the roles and the fact that the organization is focussed on individual roles and not the overarching impact of the roles.

The intent behind the idea of a scrum team was to bring all aspects of product development (business/product, engineering and process) together in order to realize the end goal. While the simplicity of the framework makes it acceptable, the roles continue to operate in isolation and be looked as “speciality driven”. To simplify, Product Managers assume that the responsibility of development team is to implement their ideas only.

As I went around coaching many organizations, I have always made a focussed effort to communicate the attributes of a successful and high performing scrum team, and the attributes that make the idea of a scrum team so powerful. Here are some key attributes that distinguish the great scrum teams from the good ones:

Screen Shot 2017-08-31 at 3.01.06 PMInclusiveness – Scrum teams works best in a inclusive environment. This means that while every individual might have a set of responsibilities that come with his/her role, what creates a big impact is how these roles come together and contribute to the overall success of the product. The idea that only Product Managers are responsible for product strategy, analysis and business decisions and development team implements the decisions made the manager defeats the purpose of a scrum team. In my experience, teams that have been able to achieve the highest level of productivity and created seriously innovative and disruptive products are the ones where these roles collaborate and engage on a day to day basis.

No culture can live if it attempts to be exclusive

Mahatma Gandhi

 For example; the complexity and the time taken to implement a functionality can negate the value of the feature. This information from the development team can impact the priority of the items in the backlog and help the Product Manager make better decisions. So, the idea of a collaborative team that embraces the scrum practices as intended can have a positive impact on the business value produced and accelerate the time take to do so.

For a patient at a hospital going through a surgical procedure involving doctors from a variety of specializations, each doctor constantly provides inputs to others to make sure that every aspect of the patient’s health is known to reduce risks and keep focus on patient’s recovery. Each one is included to achieve the end goal.

Alignment – can go a long way in defining the interest of scrum team members. Often, team members have a very narrow focus on the immediate tasks at hand and lack clarity of the business goals and objectives. Creating alignment is a critical aspect for a scrum team.

Alignment is a practice, not a state.

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Alignment is critical both at the business and process level and the scrum framework provides practices to help create the alignment through the empirical process control. The scrum team exists so that product, engineering and process can tweak things to stay on course to achieve desired outcome.

Talking about alignment, US and India launched their respective missions to Mars about a year ago. A very big part of the journey to Mars that lasts about a year to complete is to adjust the trajectory of the space vehicle to aligned with the ultimate goal (red planet). This requires various teams handling a multitude of functions to work in complete collaboration and constantly align the vehicle to ensure that the vehicle does not go off course. Any kind of misalignment can have catastrophic results.

Passion  – Alignment creates passion. Once every member of the team is aligned with the end goal of the product with clarity about what defines product success, they contribute in their unique way using their skills to make it big and successful.

Unfortunately, team members work in silos either unaware of the end goal to be achieved or are just not allowed to create impact outside their territory.  There is no focused intent to leverage the team’s creativity, skills or knowledge to drive decisions.

A great leader’s courage to fulfill his vision comes from passion, not position.”

John Maxwell

Time and again companies like Amazon and Google have shared instances where teams were able to come up with innovative solutions just by understanding a problem, doing some experimentation and adapting to feedback and these are the people who feel passionate about what they do. The intent of a scrum team is to create this combined passion for what is expected to be achieved.

Delight – The term delight is often associated with customers but it holds equal importance when it comes to the team we work with. The question one may ask “so how do we delight the team?”. As humans we get a sense of delight from small gestures from people around us. These can include writing a note of gratitude for all they do for the team and the project, engaging in activities to familiarize with the ups and downs of their lives or by just acknowledging what they do as a member of the team.

There is no delight in owning anything unshared

Seneca the younger

When a team comes together to achieve a common purpose and hold each other accountable for the collective success, delight happens. Acts of support, trust, belief, respect, openness result in a overall delightful environment and experience.

Click here to read about an experiment conducted by Thalia Wheatley called impact design to evaluate a delightful experience.

Celebrate – A unique attribute of scrum teams is their ability to celebrate success and failure. The cause of a success or failure is never attributed an individual but the whole team.

“Each day offers a reason to celebrate. Find it and experience true bliss.”

Amy Leigh Mercree

The important aspect of celebration in this case is that the celebration should become part of the team culture. Celebrations should happen frequently, for the whole team and in a way such that it leaves a lasting impact of the team members.

Conclusion: As organizations embrace the scrum team idea, the thought process needs to go beyond the need, skills and title of a role. Instead the focus needs to be towards creating an environment where unique skills are coming together to achieve a common goal in a inclusive environment where there is passion, alignment and celebrations and delight is not just for customer but for every member of the team.

 

My recent podcast on the future of Scrum Master role

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In this recent podcast, you can watch me in conversation with Samir Penkar on the topic of “The future of Scrum Master role”. This is part of Samir’s recent research study.

Add your voice to this research study:
https://futureofprojectmanagement.com/2017/01/26/future-of-scrum-master-research-study/

 

When a plumber gave a crash course in consulting

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Source: rlmconsulting.be

 

The idea of consulting is typically associated with an individual with certain specialized skills that makes him an expert in an area. While the term “consultant” is generally associated with high profile areas of specialization, other kind of areas fit rather well into the definition of a consultant.

A close friend was recently sharing his experience where he needed to call in a plumber to a fix a leak behind a wall, however; he also went about researching the internet about how to solve the problem. Not to mention he used certain keywords while searching like “cheap ways”, “quick ways” and some more. He also searched for specific information about how plumbers have a tendency to exaggerate the problem towards generating a high margin. As it was time for the plumber to arrive, he was ready with how the problem should be fixed, what tools would be needed, how he would ensure that the fix was successful and steps he would take to shield himself from getting ripped.

screen-shot-2017-02-28-at-11-19-47-amThe plumber who seemed like a master in his trade had other thoughts. He was quick to diagnose the problem and suggest the fix which obviously was different from what my friend was expecting. During this period, the plumber was patiently listening to all the research that was done. There was some back and forth and the plumber left without fixing the problem.

Human mind is constantly engaged in the activity of forming opinions about people, society, profession etc. We try to appear smart, knowledgeable and experienced in the most unknown territories. This isn’t necessarily because every human knows everything but because we feel uncomfortable with how the person in front of us will perceive us if we said “I don’t know”. At the same time, this behavior does change in situations when the outcome has a higher degree of risk involved. For example, talking to a doctor about a possible fix to an ailment, we tend to trust the doctor to make the right decision with the end objective of a successful and full recovery. We do not even want to confront the doctor if what our research suggests is otherwise.

While organizations like to have control over what and how consultants solve problems, consultants needs to exhibit certain characteristics and ethics to justify the value for the price paid. Below are some characteristics that identify great consultants from the rest:

  • Listen – A consultant’s first strategy to build confidence is by listening and paying close attention. The 5 stages of listening (receiving, understanding, evaluating, remembering, and responding) supported by active listening (a technique that required the listener to provide feedback of what he or she hears to the speaker) help in empathizing with the situation and subsequently providing solutions or asking relevant questions.
  • Comfortable saying “No” – The fact that consultants are experts in their field gives them a upper hand in making recommendations that are based on skills, knowledge and experience. This also implies that addressing the problem in hand using the right means takes precedence over other measurements including doing things a certain way to keep the client happy. As an expert, a consultant should feel comfortable to disagree with the customer and provide evidence to support it.
  • Align strategic goals and measurements of success – Engagement of a consultant suggests that a certain expertise is needed in order to address a problem which the organization is unable to address by itself. In such a scenario, it becomes vital to understand the strategic goal behind engaging a consultant and the measurements of success both long term and short term. Often these discussions never take place and consultants are asked to follow orders and paint a picture that is expected.
  • Challenge and persist – Great consultants don’t give up. They accept frictions, unforeseen circumstances and negative feedback, they learn from them and they move on. They will analyze and learn from every setback in order to prevent it from happening again.
  • Do not get ahead of yourself – Being a consultant in a specific area does not mean that one works on the same set of problems. For example; the symptoms for the doctor to diagnose a problem can vary from patient to patient. A doctor cannot afford to assume that the second patient has the same problem as the first one given that the symptoms are same. Think and assess before giving a reference to how you faced similar challenges in the past and how they were addressed. Assessment of the problem along with creative thinking should happen before influencing the solution approach.
  • Expose problems and facilitate solutions – Consulting done by providing immediate solutions to problems is done with an intention of creating dependency. A great consultant refrains from providing solutions and instead helps in exposing problems so the organization can solve the problem itself. It is impractical for a consultant to get into a problem solving mode having been with the organization for a short period of time. Instead, a great consultant will use enquiry and facilitate conversations to expose problems so organizations can find the best possible solution(s).
  • Have a exit strategy – A consultant needs to have a well defined exit strategy which should be looked at all along the duration of the engagement. Exit can be a result of a successful solution of a problem or completion of the engagement or a realization where the consultant cannot fathom the value to be added. Either way, exit at the right time goes a long way in building trust with the customer and ensuring a long term relationship. As it a said, the greatest measurement is success if by how soon a consultant can work him/herself out of a job leaving behind a organization that is self sufficient.
  • Maintain transparency – Consultants need to feel comfortable sharing both the good and bad news. Consultants are bought in for a reason that things are not working in the first place. Given the high rates consultants get paid, some consultants refrain from or delay sharing bad news with the client assuming they will address the problem without bringing it to the notice of the customer. The fact is that most issues exposed sooner than later. Consultants should establish transparency as the key criteria of their relationship with the customer right at the start of the engagement. If this is done, a bad news will not come as a surprise for the customer and will only help in building trust and ensure ongoing collaboration in addressing issues and risks.
  • Accept you don’t know it all – Not knowing everything is normal, however; accepting that I do not know everything is difficult. No matter how experienced or qualified a consultant is, s/he will run into situations where the consultant might not have a opinion or an answer. This isn’t necessarily bad news. Acknowledging that I do not know something and then making an effort to research the solution elevates the relationship and provides opportunity to learn something new.

Consulting in the area of business, technology and other recent areas of innovation has forced other business like staffing to get into the consulting fold. Individuals and so called consulting organizations have started using the term rather loosely. While this has resulted in smoke around who consultants are what they do, it is important that consultants practice the above characteristics to bring some credibility back to the professional of consulting and help organization realize the benefits of value consultants offer.

If you are a consultant who exhibits a characteristic not captured here, I would love to hear from you. Please leave a comment below. Happy Consulting..

My podcast interview about Agile, Scrum and the Scrum Master role

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Image courtesy: cbc.ca

I am excited to share my latest podcast interview with Vasco Duarte where we discuss about agile and Scrum and get into details about the Scrum Master role all through this week. This podcast was recorded for the site http://scrum-master-toolbox.com/ to discuss various topics around challenges related to the Scrum Master role, some anti patterns to Scrum, change leadership, measurements of success for Scrum Masters and agile culture and mindset.

First 2 episodes are live now. Don’t forget to watch the upcoming 3 episodes (Wednesday through Friday) this week.

Please provide your feedback on the podcast, leave comments and like. Also reach out for any questions or if you would like to record a podcast for your site.

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Failing consciously – Product Managers, make failure your ally to be successful

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Failure. A word that refers to the act of failing or proving unsuccessful.

There have been multiple instances when we decide not to do something because we not sure of being successful. Similarly we sometimes undermined our own efforts to avoid the possibility of a much larger failure.

No one likes to be called a failure, however; what would happen if you knew that you were working to fail or that your work is intended to failing you personally but making someone or something else successful?

Let’s take the example of Toyota Prius. When Toyota decided to work on the concept of a hybrid car, they created 9 teams to work on different engine ideas. So, there were engineers that were trying to create the best hybrid technology possible but they also knew that the probability of creating a successful concept that will potentially revolutionize the automotive industry was very small since there were other 8 teams working on the same idea. ToyotaHybrid2.jpgToyota did not form committees that made decisions on which engine idea to embrace but they tried all ideas in multiple scenarios, kept refining the ideas and finally got to one that proved to be the best. It turns out that in a approach like this, the final design turns out to be a collection of smaller ideas from all teams that come together to create innovative products. For Toyota, Prius became synonymous of hybrid just like Kleenex became synonymous of tissues.

Failures are the biggest allies for Product Managers. The value that Product Managers expect to achieve is based on limited analysis and certainty and huge amount of ideation, adaptation to market and most importantly failing and using the failure to learn and build something better. However; when it comes to failures, what differentiates great Product Managers from the good ones is their mindset of failing consciously and intentionally. Here is why:

Plan for failure – Thought leaders cannot stop emphasizing on the fact that failure is opportunity to learn, improve and be successful. As much as this way of thinking is important to keep the positive energy flowing,  there is a huge difference between failing consciously and failure due to unaccounted or unexpected reasons.

business-plan1-600x353While watching  Olympics a few days ago, I noticed the french sprinter Wilhem Belgian  getting disqualified from the 400 meters race and the Olympics due to a false start. While preparing for an event as big as the olympics, an athlete like Wilhem would have laid down a strategy to get to the finals, he had to end his run at the Olympics for the most unexpected reason possible. He was completely devastated when the failure was caused due to a mistake he never imagined would occur and would have been better of completing the race and loosing to better sprinters.

I am sure Wilhem was not 100% sure of winning a medal but he surely wasn’t expecting to loose the way he did.

Pro tip: If you were conscious of failure, you were sure of success.

Build entrepreneurial character – When talking about entrepreneurial characteristics,  tenacity, perseverance, and resilience are the key attributes to success. However, these attributes are not as common. Elon Musk back in 2013 said that the human brain cannot cope with business failure. But at the same time, a human brain responds differently to failures that were completely unexpected versus failures that were expected and were part of the plan to become successful.

entrepreneurAn entrepreneurial character does not try to conceive a idea that had a 100% chance of being successful. Most successful entrepreneurs started with an idea, knowing what could get in their way in becoming successful but having a strategy to deal with expected failures and leveraging the small wins along the way to make a lasting impact.

Pro tip: Do your best to plan ahead for success but be aware of the failures that may happen along the way to affirm your assessment and awareness of what could fail and what will work.

Encourage creativity and innovation – The reason for success behind most successful products and services companies like the Apple products, Google or Airbnb has been the unique opportunity to ideate, innovate and be creative. Talking about Google, its most successful innovations came by way of the 20% time given to its employees (as much as people question the existence of this policy at Google now) where they could innovate on new ideas and opportunities. What was even more important was how Google employees were measured when it came to tracking success. In this case, the engineers building the product were their own product managers.

The biggest impact of this approach was the freedom to try new ideas, innovate and  feeling safe to fail. This basically meant that they were in total control of the “why”, the “what’ and the “how” of the product. This kind of environment allowed them to keep away from the pressure of making everything successful right from the word go but also consciously make decisions that might prove wrong in working towards the final right outcome.

Pro tip: Many minds can create many ideas and then come together to produce the awesome.

Conclusion: Leveraging failure consciously in making the right decision is a critical mindset shift for product management. An urge to get things right the first time can significantly constraint human behavior in a way that can lead to a negative impact if things were to go wrong. So next time you site down to ideate, be conscious of your failure as much as your success.

 

 

Opinions as impediments. How to have an opinion and share it.

 

 

Screen Shot 2016-06-28 at 10.56.26 PMHaving an opinion is human. Thought we assume that opinions are regulated by common sense, that is generally not the case. Our entire world is about opinions. We can have a opinion about any and every thing around us, for example; Donald Trump and the US elections in general, opinion about BREXIT and its impact on the world economy and when we have nothing more, we move to creating opinions about people around us. Good or bad, a significant amount of human brain processing power is spent in forming opinions.

Even thought opinions are not necessarily bad, they do have a negative impact if an opinion is formed with a intention of imposing your thoughts on the other person or to demean someone. Additionally, forcing opinion and conveying it as a decision due to your position in the organization or the type of personality you are, takes the impact of your opinion to the next level, where it makes a conversations one sided and forces the other person to eject from the conversation.

Having said that, opinions are not going away. Human mind will continue to analyze situations and people and form opinions based on our experience, knowledge and personal objectives. This does become an issue with teams trying to foster collaboration. How often do you see an Architect telling a team on how a product should be designed killing the creativity of the team or how often do we see a leader force a team to build something that the team know will not add value to business.

Here are some guiding principles that will allow you to not only form a opinion with the right intent but be able to communicate it and leave a positive impression:

  • An opinion is a opinion – A dictionary definition of opinion is a belief or judgment that rests on grounds insufficient to produce complete certainty”. An opinion when communicated as a decision or expert judgement is totally different and hence it becomes critically important for an opinion to be conveyed that way. A good way to share an opinion is to start by saying “this is just how I think and I am happy to be proven wrong”. Being passionate about your views is admirable, but never expect anyone to abandon his or her own thoughts in favor of yours.
  • It is ok to NOT know everything – The key reason why humans are forced into having an opinion is because they do not want to come across as ignorant or unaware about what is being discussed especially when it is current hot topic in politics, sports, technology etc… However; it is ok to not know everything. So in a situation like this, retain your opinion till the time you can ask to be explained more about the topic or if your opinion is requested.
  • Start by sharing the intent – If you feel strongly about something and have a strong opinion, start by sharing the intent. Most opinions result in a negative impact on relationships be at work or family and its outcome can be brutal if relationships and partnerships are formed and end purely based on opinions without either party initiating a conversation to validate opinions. If you cannot come up with an intent to form an opinion or are not ready to validate, opinions can be destructive. Your opinion might hurt some feelings or provoke some criticism, but sharing ideas is how conversations start, communities are formed, and change happens.
  • Who/What is your opinion about – Opinions can be about people, products and opinions can be about opinions. Be cautious if you opinion is about someone who you do not get along with or someone who does not give your opinion adequate weight. Such opinions tend to involve your emotional side and can go a long way and influence the whole objective of having an opinion.
  • Argue internally – Treat your urge to form an opinion as an internal argument with yourself, a mental debate, so to speak. Consider your knowledge on the subject, your intention behind having the opinion and the value your opinion will bring before your speak up. Let go if you are unable to convince yourself.
  • Can you back your opinion with facts – Being able to back your opinion with facts is important. Base your opinion on an article your read or research your did or something you saw on the social media or anything else so that your opinions are heard.
  • Assess if your opinion is really needed – Do you remember the last time you walked into a conversation, listened briefly and in no time shared your opinion about something and were told that you got it all wrong. It has happened with me. Understand that you were not part of the conversation in the first place because your opinion does not carry enough weight and that is fine.

Opinions can and will evolve; sometimes at the risk of reshaping your reputation and credibility. And as much as you are entitled to them, don’t hold on to them too tightly. Opinions have a way of being infused with our dignity – it makes us think that if we change our opinion, them we’re flimsy or weak, when in fact it is a very natural process, kind of like growing up.

Just make sure that your opinion forces constructive and creative thinking, and don’t be afraid to share it.

Chaos with complexity – How to cope with organizational complexity

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Image source: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk

Systems, structures and processes are becoming complex by the day. Generally speaking, human life has reached that level of complexity which makes you question the existence of all the innovation and automation around us.

For the decision makers, environments that were isolated years ago, are bumping into each other causing unexpected results. This causes more decision points getting added into structures and processes causing unintentional  addition to already complex environments.

I was recently watching a TED talk by Yves Morieux titled How too many rules at work keep you from getting things done. In his talk, Yves presents an example of a 4X100 relay race. The name 4X100 relay conveys that each member of the team is expected to run a distance of 100 meters. However; this does not mean that the team member drops the baton exactly at the 100 meters mark. Most athletes end up running on an average 110 meters and most athletes don’t know how much they have run as their focus is to hand over the baton to the next member of the team and achieving the goal of completing the race.

If we were to consider a relay race example in context of an organization, there are specific roles for specific tasks. Arguments over whose responsibility was it to get something done are very common. Again, staying with the relay race example, since a member of the team has only signed up to run 100 meters, organizations end up adding a role that is responsible for passing the baton from one team member to another. The result of this approach is increase in structural complexities and a culture of local optimization.

So how do organizations cope with the complexity or what behaviors would keep complexity in check. Here are some guidelines:

  • Purpose and values – Every role in the organization has a value and purpose. This is how most roles get created but the focus needs to be about the collective purpose of the team or organization. Similar to the relay race example where finishing the race and doing whatever it take to finish first is the ultimate goal. Individual goals do not ensure team success.
  • Decentralize authority – Once shared purpose and values have been established, next step is to decentralize the authority. A relay team might have a leader/captain, someone with experience and leadership attributes, but when it comes to taking a decision during the race, every athlete makes decision keeping the end goal of winning the race in mind. In the end, it is the team that wins and it is the team that loses.
  • Early awareness of unpredictable situations – When dealing with complexity, one needs to identify the variables that create predictable outcomes when they’re within a particular range, and unpredictable outcomes when they are not. In a relay race scenario, weather plays a crucial factor. Teams alter the sequence of the participating team members or make similar adjustments to ensure that the collective team keeps the focus on the end goal. The decisions made are generally subtle and not drastic to ensure last minute adaptation does not impact the overall probability of the team winning the race.
  • Leadership – Leading a complex organization requires an entirely different mindset. Hierarchy works if every level is doing something distinct and specific. However, due to the interdependence in complexity, this is impossible in today’s organizations. By simplifying and clarifying vision and values, core processes and decentralization, and early awareness systems, hierarchy can be complemented by “heterarchy”, the interdependent, networked organization in which every part reflects a different perspective of the whole and which is needed in today’s global business world. The boss no longer needs to “tell” the team members what exactly to do, but rather depend on their initiative, creativity and competence for success. So, next time your team faces a challenge, do not create additional complexity, but trust the team to make the right choice. Teams generally appreciate a nimble setup.
  • Simplify and cleanup – An easy starting point for simplification is to get rid of stupid rules and low-value activities, time-wasters that exist in abundance in most organizations. Look, for example, at how many people need to review and sign off on expense reports; or how many times slide decks need to be reviewed before they are presented. If you can shed a few simple tasks, you will create bandwidth to focus on more substantial simplification opportunities.

So, every time you fix a problem, look at the solution you are proposing and ask yourself a question, “Am I fixing a problem or creating more chaos with complexity?”.